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We live in a day and age where we tend to evolve each day on all frontiers. So is the field of programming and the languages used by programmers. While Java, C++, JavaScript, PHP, Ruby etc have been there, done that; there are plenty of other languages that are now being increasingly embraced by programmers across the globe for the sheer fact that they offer a little extra to what the majors do. Here are eight such lesser known languages creating quite the storm today.

1.Racket 6.0 - Racket 6.0 : General purpose, multi-paradigm programming language in the Lisp/Scheme family. The platform provides an implementation of the Racket language (including a sophisticated run-time system, various libraries, JIT compiler, and more) along with a development environment called DrRacket written in Racket itself. Used in a variety of contexts such as scripting, general-purpose programming, computer science education, and research.

2.OCaml 4.01 - 2.OCaml 4.01 : Main implementation of the Caml programming language that extends the core Caml language with object-oriented constructs. OCaml’s toolset includes an interactive top level interpreter, a bytecode compiler, and an optimising native code compiler. It has a large standard library that makes it useful for many of the same applications as Python or Perl, as well as robust modular and object-oriented programming constructs that make it applicable for large-scale software engineering.
3.Nimrod 0.9.2 - Nimrod 0.9.2  : Statically typed, imperative programming language that tries to give the programmer ultimate power without compromises on runtime efficiency. This means it focuses on compile-time mechanisms in all their various forms. Consists of a nice infix/indentation based syntax with a powerful (AST based, hygienic) macro system and a semantic model that supports a soft realtime GC on thread local heaps.
4. Julia 0.2.1 - Julia 0.2.1 : High-level dynamic programming language designed to address the requirements of high-performance numerical and scientific computing while also being effective for general purpose programming. Julia’s core is implemented in C and C++, its parser in Scheme, and the LLVM compiler framework is used for just-in-time generation of machine code.
5.Hack 1.0 - Hack 1.0 : Programming language for the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM) invented by Facebook. Hack can be seen as a new version of PHP that also runs on the HHVM, but it allows programmers to use both dynamic typing and static typing.
6.Groovy 2.2 - Groovy 2.2 : Object-oriented programming language for the Java platform that is a dynamic language with features similar to those of Python, Ruby, Perl, and Smalltalk. It can be used as a scripting language for the Java Platform, is dynamically compiled to Java Virtual Machine (JVM) bytecode, and interoperates with other Java code and libraries.
7.Egison 3.3.3 - Egison 3.3.3 : Touted as the world’s first programming language that realised non-linear pattern-matching with backtracking. It enables to represent pattern-matching against lists, multisets, sets, trees, graphs and any kind of data types, directly.
8.Clojure 1.6 - Clojure 1.6 : Dialect of the Lisp programming language, Clojure is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on functional programming. It runs on the Java Virtual Machine, Common Language Runtime, and JavaScript engines.

…Programmers are always advised to improve skills in C, Java, Objective C, PHP and the similar types. But the exciting part is there are few new languages which are getting introduced slowly with huge potential and entering the mainstream programming too. Some of the languages are evolved from existing languages. The newer languages are helpful towards making applications simpler for programmers.
1. D – D :
This is one of the hottest new programming languages which is used by Facebook. It’s a refreshed version of C++ and it takes its inspiration from Python, Java, Ruby, Eiffel and C#. It’s easy to write a code with D and it also doesn’t require a pre-processor. It can also tackle Unicode excellently. D is growing to expand its reach in coming years a lot with high efficiency and productivity.
2. Dart - Dart:
Dart is created by Google which is expected to become the new language for web programming.
Dart uses C like syntax and keywords and its objects are defined through classes and interfaces. Dart allows programmers to declare variables with static types, though its optional. Dart is not very usable today but it has a strong future. It’s a strong competitor for JavaScript.
3. Ceylon - Ceylon :
The creator of Ceylon programming language, Gavin King, knew it best how to create a language which is better than Java. That’s why King created Ceylon in collaboration with Red Hat. This language is said to have potential to kill Java one day. It works on the Java runtime environment only which means java has a huge role to play in Ceylon. But Ceylon offers regular syntax and developers are allowed to overcome the limitations of Java.
4. Go - Go :
It’s a programming language used for application development to system programming. It’s more similar to C and C++ than Java and C#. It has some modern features too like garbage collection, runtime reflection and more. Go language is an easy option to program with and its basic syntax is like C. The Go team aims to create a dynamic scripting language. The language is still under development and it differs from other languages a lot.
5. F# – F# :
Computer scientists are quite familiar with the concept of functional programming but programming languages like C++ and Java lack from integration of functional-style code into libraries. Here comes F# or F-sharp which is a Microsoft language and both functional as well as practical. It’s based .NET common language runtime.
6. Opa – Opa :
Web development is not a very simple thing to do. Web apps require several coding in multiple languages. HTML and JavaScript are required on the client, Java and PHP are required for server, SQL is required for database and more. Opa is not an alternative to the existing programming languages. It’s a combination of client and server frameworks.
7. Scala - Scala :
Scala is more than often compared to Java. It’s not very new as it’s there for ten years but it’s not considered one of the most essential programming languages. But Scala is said to be very productive by developers as it’s concise and more functional programming style is used in it. It also offers a potent mix of object oriented and functional programming.

One more Sunday afternoon means one more release candidate from Linux kernel. The tradition is always followed by Linux founder Linus Torvalds and this Sunday was also no exception. This Sunday was dedicate to the release of Linux 3.18-rc5, as expected.
Linux 3.18-rc5 is the latest release in the Linux 3.18 kernel development build. It’s the fifth release candidate to the Linux 3.18 kernel. For last few weeks, the Linux kernel development has seen lots of ups and downs. Torvalds was no happy with the unnecessary fast pace of development during the second and third release candidate. Last week, when 3.18-rc 4 was released, Torvalds was feeling better with the development stage.
Now with the release of the fifth release candidate to the Linux 3.18 kernel, more changes have happened than its predecessor. Linux 3.18-rc5 is said to be a heavier release with more changes than rc-4. Past week several changes were merged together. Linux 3.18-rc 4 was a minor release and a smaller one in comparison to the latest one. Torvalds explains this week’s changes are not at all “odd or scary”, and it’s not only some regression or bug fixes.
The latest update has come along with support for building with GCC 5 and LLVM Clang SVN. Both of these come as default for building with the GNU11/C11 C language standard. But now with the latest release, the Linux kernel will provide support to it. The final Linux 3.18 is still few weeks away but when it will arrive, it will come with loads of new features.
Read the official Linux 3.18-rc5 announcement here, on Indiana kernel mailing list.

Reference cards (cheat sheets) collection.